Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off

Authors: Amanda K Pettersen, Matthew D Hall, Craig R White, and Dustin J Marshall

Published in: Evolution Letters

Abstract

Metabolism is linked with the pace-of-life, co-varying with survival, growth, and reproduction. Metabolic rates should therefore be under strong selection and, if heritable, become less variable over time. Yet intraspecific variation in metabolic rates is ubiquitous, even after accounting for body mass and temperature.

Theory predicts variable selection maintains trait variation, but field estimates of how selection on metabolism varies are rare.

We use a model marine invertebrate to estimate selection on metabolic rates in the wild under different competitive environments.

Fitness landscapes varied among environments separated by a few centimetres: interspecific competition selected for higher metabolism, and a faster pace‐of‐life, relative to competition‐free environments.

Populations experience a mosaic of competitive regimes; we find metabolism mediates a competition-colonization trade-off across these regimes. Although high metabolic phenotypes possess greater competitive ability, in the absence of competitors, low metabolic phenotypes are better colonizers.

Spatial heterogeneity and the variable selection on metabolic rates that it generates is likely to maintain variation in metabolic rate, despite strong selection in any single environment.

Pettersen AK, Hall MD, White CR, Marshall DJ (2020) Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off. Evolution Letters PDF DOI

Genotypic covariance between the performance of a resident species and community assembly in the field

Authors: Arthur M Riedel, Keyne Monro, Mark W Blows, and Dustin J Marshall

Published in: Functional Ecology, volume 32, issue 2 (February 2018)

Abstract

Genetic variation in resident species can influence the assembly and dynamics of communities, but the potential for these genetic effects to persist across generations is largely unresolved. In principle, persistent, directional changes in communities are only predicted when community properties covary genetically with the fitness of resident species.

Estimates of genetic covariance between the fitness of a resident species and its community are therefore necessary to “close the eco-evolutionary loop” in studies of community genetics, but such estimates are rare. Emulating community genetics experiments in plants, we used clonal replicates of 21 genotypes of a resident species (the encrusting bryozoan, Hippopodina) to investigate the magnitude of genotypic variance contributing to assembly of a marine benthic community.

Genotypes explained up to 35% of variation in community assembly. Critically, the performance of Hippopodina genotypes covaried both with the evenness of communities and with the abundances of some individual species, representing an indirect genetic effect that creates the potential for multigenerational interactions between Hippopodina and co-existing species. Our results suggest that different genotypes will associate with different community members consistently across generations, and such non-random associations can give rise to specialization. Further interactions between species other than Hippopodina itself may also be altered by effects of genetic variation in the focal species.

Furthermore, species in the community other than Hippopodina itself will interact more commonly in the presence of some genotypes over others.

Our results support the potential for genetic variation in one species to have deterministic effects on the dynamics of ecological communities.

Citation

Riedel AM, Monro K, Blows MW, Marshall DJ (2018) Genotypic covariance between the performance of a resident species and community assembly in the field, Functional Ecology, PDF 945 KB doi:/10.1111/1365-2435.13005